This study reviews OER-relevant policies across all 28 Member States of the European Union, focusing on the policy needs, policy impact, and barriers to progress. The authors conclude that there are four types of relevant policies, namely (1) policies that promote OER and OER, (2) policies related to information and communication technologies for learning, (2) strategic education policies, and (4) policies designed as national open government plans. Many of these policies are quite recent, and the authors note that impacts are difficult to entangle. However, they succeed in identifying several barriers, including (1) low information and communications technology readiness, (2) lack of institutional support, (3) resistance to change, (4) lack of awareness about OER, and (5) the lack of a system for national recognition of open licenses. They also identify enablers for policy progress, including (1) policy prioritization of OER (at national and EU level), (2) empowerment of educators, and (3) online advocacy communities.
Andreia Inamorato dos Santos, Fabio Nascimbeni, Paul Bacsich, Javiera Atenas, Stefania Aceto, Daniel Burgos, Yves Punie
Primary educational sector
Secondary educational sector